HIV has become a global health emergency at present globally and has affected all regions of the world irrespective of gender, age, region, culture and nationality causing millions of deaths and sufferings. Access to prevention, modes of treatment at different stages available these days has changed the scenario at globe level. The immune system of our body protect us by recognizing the invading pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites) and gives the instant reaction to those pathogens and thus prevent us from falling ill. The cells of immune system that play part in regulation and destruction of antigens ate T lymphocytes. When HIV is in the circulatory system, it targets CD4+ lymphocytes.
When the infection HIV infection first enters the body, it is known as Primary Infection (HIV 1). In Primary Infection (HIV 1) a person carries high viral load meaning there are numerous viruses per millimeter of plasma or blood present that can exceed over 1 million in number. The signs and symptoms at this stage are known as SERCONVERSION ILLNESS and these include headache, sore throat, continuous diarrhea, vomiting, night seats, and weight loss and skin rashes. The average time of this SEROCONVERSION ILLNESS is around 25 days. During Primary Infection (HIV 1) the CD4 count decreases and can drop less to than 200 cells/µL. CD4+ cells in the lymph nodes and thymus are attacked by this HIV virus making infected (HIV person) vulnerable to opportunistic infections and decreases the ability of thymus to produce T lymphocytes.